Breed Organization The American Donkey and Mule Society ADMS Website: http://www.lovelongears.com Native Country Egypt or Mesopotamia Other Names N/A Average Height 7.3h to 15.3h Adult Weight Various Rider Experience Level Beginner
Breed Description The mane and tail in the donkey are coarse. The mane is stiff and upright, rarely laying over and the tail is more like a cow's, covered with
short body hair for most of the length, and ending in a tasseled switch. Donkeys do not have a true forelock, although sometimes the mane grows
long enough to comb down between the ears toward the eyes. Because the mane is stiff and sometimes flyaway, many donkeys, especially show stock,
wear their manes clipped short or shaved close to the neck.
Hoof shape varies as well, donkey hooves are smaller and rounder, with more upright
pasterns. The legs should have good bone, but many donkeys of common breeding may appear to have long thin legs with tiny feet. Larger Asses such as
the Poitou or Andalusian types may appear opposite, with huge, heavy shaggy legs and large round feet. Good legs and feet are essential for breeding Mules,
as a good foot is much preferable to a large body on tiny stick legs and feet.
The vocal qualities are the frequently remembered differences in the
long-ears. The donkey's voice is a raspy, brassy Bray, the characteristic Aw-EE, Aw-EE sound. Jacks especially seem to enjoy braying, and will "sound
off" at any opportunity.
Although many donkeys are the familiar gray-dun color, there are many other coat shades. Most donkeys, regardless of coat
color, will have dorsal stripes and shoulder crosses, dark ear marks, as well as the "light points" - white muzzle and eye rings, and white belly and
inner leg. Leg barring ("garters" or "zebra stripes") may be present as well. Small dark spots right at the throatlatch, called "collar buttons" are a
good identifying marking and occur occasionally. These typical donkey markings may be passed on in part or whole to Mule or Hinny offspring.
Colors in the donkey range from the gray shades of gray-dun to brown, a rare bay (though not as red-toned as in horses) , black, light-faced roan
(both red and gray), variants of sorrel (Registry term - RED), the blue-eyed Ivory (also called cream or white-phase), Frosted/spotted White, and a
unique Spotted pattern. True horse pinto, horse aging gray, horse appaloosa, palomino and buckskin do not occur in the donkey. The more unusual colors
are the Dappled Roan, where the face and legs are light and the body is marked with "reverse" dapples (dark spots on a
light background, as opposed to the horse dapple where the dapples themselves are light on dark), frosted gray (with light faces and legs and
some white hairs in the coat) the pink-skinned, blue-eyed Ivory white, and the frosted spotted white. The frosted spotted is an apparent
combination of a graying or roan with the spotted pattern, and can throw either more FSW, spotted, or frosty roan colts. The animals are best
defined as a spotted animal where the skin is spotted but the color does not necessarily show through on the coat (it has roaned or "grayed";
out). Frosted spotted white (FSW) can be identified from Ivory white by checking the skin around the eyes and muzzle. Ivory (creams) will
have blue eyes and true pink skin, while FSW will have dark eyes, dark "eyeliner" and dark spotting on the skin. Another unusual variant of the
spotting line is the "tyger spot" pattern. These donkeys vary from the typical large spots over the ears, eyes, and topline. The body will be
covered with small round spots resembling the appaloosa type.
Donkeys come in a variety of sizes from the Miniature Mediterranean
(under 36 inches) to the elegant Mammoth Jackstock (14 hands and up ). The rare French Poitou donkey, characterized by it's huge head and
ears, and very thick, shaggy, curled black coat, can stand 14 to 15 hand high. (There are estimated to be about 400 purebred Poitous left in
the world today.) The types of donkeys are labeled by their sizes; 36" and under, Miniature Mediterranean, 36.01-48", Standard, 48.01" to 54"
(jennets) or 56"; (jacks), Large Standard, and 54/56" and over, Mammoth Stock. There are no real populations of BREEDS of donkeys left, such
as the Catalonian, Majorcan, or Andalusian. Modern donkeys can strongly resemble these ancestral breeds in TYPE, but are not classified as
those breeds unless they have traceable pure-bred pedigrees to those lines.
History Donkeys today come in all shapes, sizes, colours and coat texture. The most common coat colour is grey, followed by brown and then black, roan
and broken coloured donkeys (a combination of brown-and-white or black-and-white markings) and the rarest colour is pure white.
Poitou donkeys originate from France and stand at 14 to 15 hands, they have a thick coat which traditionally is matted and tangled and is brown
bay in colour.
The donkey's ancestors were wild donkey's from Africa and Asia. The African branch of the breed were found between
the Mediterranean coast and the Sahara Desert to the south of the Red Sea. There were two separate species: the Nubian wild donkey and the
Somali wild donkey. The Asiatic branch of the breed came from a much larger area stretching from the Red Sea to Northern India and Tibet where
the ass had to adapt to different climate, terrain and altitude.
Consequently there is more than one type of Asiatic wild donkey.
The further east the ass was found, the larger, heavier and stronger the animal became. Sadly many of these original breeds are now extinct,
due to cross breeding and the decline of the use of the donkey, particularly in the Western World. Donkeys were among the draught animals used
to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean along the 'Silk Road' in return for trade goods. The overland route was approximately
6,400km and lasted several years. No single animal completed the entire journey and mixing of breeds occurred as unplanned matings happened
en-route. The journey ended in the Mediterranean ports of Greece, Italy, the Middle East and Alexandria in Egypt. In Greece donkeys were found
to be ideal animals for working on the narrow paths between the vines. Their use for cultivation in vineyards spread through the Mediterranean
countries to Spain, whose coast at the southern tip is separated from North Africa by only a few miles - possibly another entry route for the
African wild donkey.
The Roman Army was responsible for the movement of donkeys into Northern Europe. Donkeys were used in
agriculture and as pack animals. The Romans used donkeys in their new vineyards, some planted as far north as France and Germany. Donkeys came
to England with the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43.
Behavior Donkeys can be used just like horses under saddle and in harness, although donkey are more laid back and self-preserving in nature. They prefer
to do what is good for the donkey, which is not always what the human thinks is best (especially when it comes to getting their feet wet...).
They are very friendly, and their nature makes them excellent for children. Donkeys can perform all the gaits horses or mules do (yes, some are
even "gaited", exhibiting a single-foot gait), but galloping is usually not on the program unless dinner is being served.
Donkeys can also make wonderful guard animals - the right donkey gelding or jennet will take care of an entire herd of cattle, sheep or goats -
the natural aversion to predators will inspire the donkey to severely discourage any canine attacks on the herd. Dogs and donkeys usually
don't mix, although they can be trained to leave the house or farm dog alone!
Health Extremely strong
Function Donkeys have a notorious reputation for stubbornness, but this has been attributed to a much stronger sense of self-preservation than
exhibited by horses. Likely based on a stronger prey instinct and a weaker connection with man, it is considerably more difficult to force or frighten a donkey
into doing something it perceives to be dangerous for whatever reason. Once a person has earned their confidence they can be willing and companionable partners
and very dependable in work.