Breed Organization Xoloitzcuintle Club USA Website:
http://www.xoloworld.com Native Country Mexico Other Names Mexican Hairless Dog, Xoloitzcuintli, Xolo, Xoloitzcuintle Life Expectancy Approximately 15-18 Years Litter Size Average 2-4 Puppies Breed Group AKC Miscellaneous Class
Breed Appearance The breed ranges in size from about 10 to 50
lb. Similar in appearance to a Pharaoh Hound, with a sleek body,
almond-shaped eyes, large bat-like ears, and a long neck, the Xolo
is notable for its dominant trait of hairlessness. The dominant
hairless trait originated in this breed as a spontaneous mutation
thousands of years ago. The recessive expression of the trait will
produce a coated variety, which is genetically inseparable from the
hairless, as the homozygous appearance of the hairless mutation is
fatal to the unborn pup. Most litters contain both hairless and
coated puppies. The coated variety, covered with a short, flat dense
coat represents the original form of the dog, prior to the
occurrence of the spontaneous hairless mutation. The hairless
variety is completely hairless on the body, with many dogs
exhibiting a few short hairs on the top of the head, the toes and
the tip of the tail. Most hairless dogs are black or bluish-gray in
color. The allele responsible for the Xolo's hairlessness also
affects the dog's dentition: Hairless Xolos typically have an
incomplete set of teeth while the dogs of the coated variety have
The Xolo is moderate in all aspects
of its appearance, conveying an impression of strength, agility and
elegance. Xolo body proportions are rectangular, slightly longer in
total body length than the height measured at the highest point of
the withers (top of the shoulders). The breed occurs naturally in
two varieties, hairless and coated. Hairless Xolos are the dominant
expression of the heterozygous Hh hairless trait. Coated Xolos (hh)
are the recessive expression, and breeding hairless to coated or
hairless to hairless may produce pups of either or both varieties.
Breeding coated to coated will only produce coated pups because they
are recessive to the hairless trait and do not carry the dominant H
Both varieties occur in all hair or skin colors,
and often marked, splashed or spotted. The most common colors are
various shades termed black, blue, and red. The breed occurs in a
range of sizes, which breeders have standardized into three
Breed Description Head: Long. Fairly broad skull. Minimal
stop. Long, slender muzzle. Tight-lipped. Nose dark pink or brown,
depending on coat color. Ears: Large (up to 10 cm), thin. Held stiff and slanted in
action. Eyes: Medium-sized, slightly almond-shaped, preferably dark,
ranging from yellow to black. Body: Fairly long. Neck carried high, slightly arched,
graceful, without dewlap. Chest deep but fairly narrow. Tuck-up.
Straight back. Well-rounded croup. Tail: Set on low, smooth, fairly long. Hair: Tuft of short, stiff hair on the skull. Crisp hair on the
tip of the tail. Complete absence of hair is not penalized. Coat: Preferably solid dark bronze, elephant grey,
greyish-black, or black. Unpigmented areas with pink or brown
patches are acceptable. Hair on the head and tail must be black in
dark varieties. In light varieties, it can be any color that blends
with the overall appearance. Size: 30 to 50 cm. Weight: Varies according to size.
History The Mexican Hairless Dog is one of the world's
oldest breeds. He might have been brought to Mexico from
northeastern Asia by the nomadic ancestors of the Aztecs. The
Toltecs, the first inhabitants of Mexico, kept Chihuahuas in their
temples. When the Aztecs conquered the land, they introduced the
Mexican Hairless Dog. Some believe that these two breeds were
crossed to produce the Chinese Crested Dog. The name Xoloitzcuintle
comes from the ancient Aztec god Xolotl, who accompanied souls to
the afterworld. Despite this godly name, native peoples ate these
dogs and kept them for protection and healing purposes. The first
descriptions of the Mexican Hairless Dog date to the seventeenth
century. The American Kennel Club published a standard in 1933. The
breed is rare in Europe.
Behavior Adult Xolos are noted for their calm demeanor,
but puppies can be extremely energetic, noisy and often chewy until
they reach maturity (after 2 years old), when they settle down and
become more calm. The Xolo breed has what is considered 'primitive'
temperament traits (very high intelligence, high energy,
inquisitiveness, strong hunting and social instincts). Today, Xolos
can be escape artists, climbing and jumping fences to chase. Thus
they possess guard dog ability and will not back down from a fight.
At the same time, adult dogs, when they are raised properly, are
known to become steady, well-behaved and affectionate companions.
This primitive temperament is apparent because the breed temperament
overall has not been modified by selective breeding in their native
thousands-years history in Mexico. This has also ensured a sturdy
physical nature and vigorous health generally innate in both coated
and uncoated Xolos.
Xolo behavioral temperament can be
similar to that of other Working breeds, with high intelligence,
sensitivity, and social instincts. Well-raised Xolos bond strongly
with their dog-wise owners.
Though physically grown at
one year, many dog breeds including Xolos are not 'emotionally
mature' until around two years. Like active breeds such as terriers,
Xolos need calm, persistent and loving obedience and socialization
training during their growing years.
Health The Xolo is a very hardy and healthy breed
possessing no known breed-related health problems.
Advice He needs minimal exercise. Because of his
delicate skin, he must be bathed regularly and rubbed with a
moisturizer. He cannot tolerate cold or bright sun.