Breed Organization American Pomeranian Club Website:
http://www.AmericanPomeranianClub.org Native Country Germany Other Names Dwarf Spitz, Zwergspitz, Loulou, Pom, Deutscher Zwergspitz, Toy German Spitz, Deutscher Spitz Life Expectancy Approximately 12-15 Years Litter Size Average 1-3 Puppies Breed Group Toy - AKC
Breed Appearance Pomeranians are compact but sturdy dogs with an
abundant textured coat with a highly plumed tail set high and flat.
The top coat forms a ruff of fur on the neck, which Poms are
well-known for, and they also have a fringe of feathery hair on the
The earliest examples of the breed were
white or occasionally brown or black. Queen Victoria adopted a small
red Pomeranian in 1888, which caused that color to become
fashionable by the end of the 19th century. In modern times, the
Pomeranian comes in the widest variety of colors of any dog breed,
including white, black, brown, red, orange, cream, blue, sable,
black and tan, brown and tan, spotted, brindle, plus combinations of
those colors. The most common colors are orange, black or
The merle Pomeranian is a recent color developed by breeders. It is
a combination of a solid base color with lighter blue/grey patch
which gives a mottled effect. The most common base colors for the
effect are red/brown or black, although it can also appear with
other colors. Combinations such as brindle merle or liver merle are
not accepted in the breed standard. In addition, the eye, nose and
paw pad are marshmallow color, changing parts of the eye to blue and
the color on the nose and paw pads to become mottled pink and black.
Pomeranians have a thick double coat, and while grooming is not
difficult, breeders recommend that it be done daily to maintain the
quality of the coat and because of its thickness and the constant
shedding, with trimming every 1–2 months. The outer coat is long,
straight, and harsh in texture while the undercoat is soft, thick
and short. The coat knots and tangles easily, particularly when the
undercoat is being shed, which happens twice a year.
Breed Description Head: The head of the Pomeranian is
wedge-shaped, making it somewhat foxy in appearance. Ears: The ears are small and set high. Tail: Its tail is characteristic of the breed and should be
turned over the back and carried flat, set high. When born, the tail
is not spread out; it may take months for it to grow over the
Pomeranian's back, and flatten. Color: The AKC recognizes twelve colors or color combinations:
black, brown, chocolate, beaver, red, orange, cream, orange-sable,
wolf-sable, blue, white, and parti-color. Weight: At an average of 3 to 7 lb (1.4 to 3.2 kg). The
Pomeranian (Pom) is the most diminutive (diminutive means
tiny/small, etc.) of the northern breeds.
History The Pomeranian originated from the sled dogs of
Iceland and Lapland, which were eventually brought into Europe in
Pomerania. This region, bordered on the north by the Baltic Sea, has
been under the control of the Celts, Slavs, Poles, Swedes, Danes and
Prussians, at various times. This region extends from the west of
the Rügen Island to the Vistula river - there it became popular both
as a pet and working dog. The name Pomore or Pommern, meaning "on
the sea" was given to the district about the time of Charlemagne.
Breeders in Pomerania improved the coat and bred the dogs down for
city living, but they were still 20 pounds or more when they reached
English breeders, through trial and error and
Mendelian theories, are credited for reducing the dog's size and
developing the many colors. The Pomeranian of today is small due to
selective breeding, but the breed still retains the hardy
disposition and thick coat typical of dogs in cold climates.
Orange Sable Pom's face Queen Charlotte first introduced the
Pomeranian to English nobility, however; the Pom gained
international popularity when her granddaughter Victoria returned
from vacation in Florence, Italy with a Pomeranian named Marco.
(It should be noted that the Pomeranian as a modern breed did not
exist until the 19th century, The dogs owned by Queen Charlotte &
Queen Victoria were much larger and were European Spitz. Probably a
German Spitz and a Volpino Italiano. The same is true of any other
historical pom owners from before the 19th century)
The closest relatives of the Pomeranian are the Norwegian Elkhound,
the Schipperke, the German Spitz(and American Eskimo Dog), the
Samoyed, and the whole Spitz group.
Behavior The Pomeranian is a very active dog who is
intelligent, courageous, and a loyal companion. But due to its small
size can suffer abuse from children. Beneath the pomeranian's fur is
a small but muscular little dog, similar to a Chihuahua.
Pomeranians can be trained to be good watchdogs by announcing
intruders with loud, sharp barks or yips. Unfortunately, lack of
very dedicated training has instead led this breed to a reputation
for constant, undirected barking. For this reason, these dogs can
prove very stressful company for those unaccustomed to their vocal
nature. But stating "NO!" in a firm, gentle voice will let them know
when it is wrong for them to bark.
The Pomeranian easily
adapts to life in the city, and is an excellent dog for country
living with its strong hunting instincts from its wild ancestors.
Health Pomeranians are prone to dislocated patella
(kneecap), slipped stifle, heart problems, eye infections, skin
irritations and tooth decay and early loss. It is recommended that
they are fed dry dog food or crunchy Milk Bones daily to help keep
the teeth and gums in good condition. Newborn Pom puppies are very
tiny and fragile. Three newborns can be held in the palm of one’s
hand. Dams on the smaller side often need to deliver by cesarean
section. When the dog is old it may become molted with bald spots.
Advice A daily or twice weekly brushing is essential
to keep the thick, plush coat, which sheds seasonally, free of mats.
Brushing also helps to prevent dry skin and dandruff.