Canine Breed Menu



Breed Organization
Pug Dog Club of America
Native Country
Other Names
Carlin, Mops, Chinese Pug Dog, Dutch Bulldog, Dutch Mastiff, Mopshond, Mini Mastiff, Pug
Life Expectancy
Approximately 12-15 Years
Litter Size
Average 2-5 Puppies
Breed Group
Breed Appearance
The pug is a toy dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colors, although often black or fawn, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles. Known in ancient China as lo-sze, pugs as breeding animals may have contributed to the English Bulldog, the modern Pekingese and the King Charles Spaniel. Pugs were brought from China to Europe in the seventeenth century and were popularized in Western Europe. Pugs remain popular into the twenty-first century, with some famous celebrity owners. A pug was judged Best in Show at the World Dog Show in 2004.

Breed Description
Head: Strong, round. Skull without furrows. Pronounced stop. Muzzle short, angular, not turned up. Distinct wrinkles. Slight underbite. Lower incisors set in nearly a straight line.
Ears: Thin, small, soft. Two shapes allowed: - rose: small, drop ears folding back to expose the external canal; - button (preferred): falling forward with the tip against the head and the canal covered.
Eyes: Very large, globular, dark, shiny.
Body: Compact, square build, cobby. Neck slightly arched, strong, thick. Wide chest.
Tail: Set on high ("spire"), curled as tightly as possible over the hip. Double curl is prized.
Hair: Thin, smooth, soft, short, and glossy. Neither hard nor woolly.
Coat: Silver, apricot, fawn, or black. Each color very distinct, creating a complete contrast between coat, trace (black stripe from the occiput to the tail), and mask color. Markings are well-defined. Black markings are as dark as possible on the muzzle or mask, ears, moles on the cheeks, thumb mark or diamond on the forehead, and trace.
Size: Approx. 30 cm.
Weight: 6.3 to 8.1 kg.

The Pug is a very ancient breed believed to be from China and thought to have the same origins as the Tibetan Mastiff. He arrived in Europe via Holland in the sixteenth century and was developed in England during the seventeenth century. The British created two varieties—the fawn-coated Morisson Pug and the black-and-coffee-brown Willoughby Pug. These two varieties became one in 1866, and the breed was crossed with small spaniels to produce the now extinct Alicante Dog. In the eighteenth century, Pugs were brought to France, where Marie Antoinette and later Josephine de Beauharnais (the first wife of Napoleon I) kept them as pets. The Pug is named so because of his stubby nose. He is known in Germany as the Mops (from the German word meaning "to grumble") and in France as the Carlin (after the eighteenth-century Italian actor Carlo "Carlino" Bertinazzi, who wore a black mask when playing the part of Harlequin). After a period of decline, and later of notoriety thanks to the Duke of Windsor, the breed is gaining popularity again.

Affectionate, intelligent, and gentle, this little lap dog is a good-natured pet but can be exclusive and touchy. He does not tolerate children well. The rambunctious Pug puppy becomes a calm, poised adult. He seldom barks and is not a watchdog, despite being reserved toward strangers. He needs firm, very early training.

Pugs catch colds easily and are stressed by hot and cold weather. They are prone to allergies and the short muzzle contributes to chronic breathing problems, making the Pug tend to wheeze and snore. Prone to skin problems. Prone to mast cell tumors. Prone to Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE), an inflammation of the brain that strikes adolescent Pugs usually between the ages of 2 and 3. The cause is unknown. They are not the easiest whelpers. Dams usually have to have cesarean sections due to the size of the pups’ heads. There is a chance of Keratitis and ulcers on the cornea. Eyes are prone to weeping and cherry eye. Do not overfeed a Pug, as they will eat more than is good for them, quickly becoming obese and living much shorter lives.

He is perfectly suited to apartment life. Not being very athletic, short walks suffice. He hates being left alone or separated from his owner. He should be kept out of intense heat since, like all brachycephalic dogs, he is susceptible to respiratory blockage. His eyes are sensitive to dust and need regular checking, as do the wrinkles on his face. He must be brushed twice or three times a week.


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