Breed Organization American Eskimo Dog Club of America Website: http://www.aedca.org Native Country Germany Other Names Eskimo Spitz, Eskie, German Spitz, Standard Eskimo Dog, Miniature Eskimo Dog, Toy Eskimo Dog Life Expectancy Approximately 16 Years Litter Size Average 5 Puppies Breed Group AKC Non-Sporting
Breed Appearance The American Eskimo is a beautiful, small to medium-size Nordic-type dog that looks like a miniature Samoyed. There are three
varieties: toy, miniature and standard. That means there is an Eskie for all interests and house sizes. The American Eskimo has a wedge-shaped
head with muzzle and skull about the same length. It has erect triangular-shaped ears, and a heavily plumed tail curled over the back. Its neck is
well carried and the topline good and level. Good legs and feet allow the Eskie to trot with bold energetic action. The profuse coat is always
white, or white with biscuit or cream markings. Its skin is pink or gray. Black is the preferred color of its eyelids, gums, nose and pads. The coat
is heavy around the neck, creating a ruff or mane, especially in males. The breed is slightly longer than it is tall. The coat of the American Eskimo
should not curl or wave; the undercoat should be thick and plush with the harsher outer coat growing up through it.
Breed Description Head: Expression is keen, intelligent and alert. Eyes: Eyes are not fully round, but slightly. They should be
well apart, and not slanted, prominent or bulging. Coat: The Eskimo Spitz has a stand-off, double coat
consisting of a dense undercoat and a longer coat of guard hair
growing through it to form the outer coat. It is straight with no
curl or wave. There is a prounounced ruff around the neck which is
more noticeable on dogs than bitches. Outer part of the ear should
be well covered with short, smooth hair, with longer tufts of hair
growing in front of ear openings. Hair on muzzle should be short and
smooth. The backs of the front legs should be well feathered, as are
the rear legs down to the hock. The tail is covered profusely with
long hair. Size: There are three seperate size divisions of the American
Eskimo Dog (all measurements are heights at withers): Toy, 9 inches
to and including 12 inches; Miniature, over 12 inches to and
including 15 inches; and Standard, over 15 inches to and including
History The American Eskimo Dog was originally bred to guard people and property and, therefore, is territorial by nature and a
valiant watchdog. They are not considered an aggressive breed. But, due to the breed's watchdog history, American Eskimos are generally quite
vocal, barking at any stranger who comes in proximity to their owners or their owner's territory.
In Northern Europe, smaller Spitz
were eventually developed into the various Eskimo Spitz breeds. European immigrants brought their Spitz pets with them to the United States, especially
New York, in the early 1900s, "all of them descended from the larger Eskimo Spitz, the Keeshond, the white Pomeranian, and the Italian Spitz, the Volpino
Although white was not always a recognized color in the various Eskimo Spitz breeds, it was generally the preferred color in the
US. In a display of patriotism in the era around World War I, dog owners began referring to their pets as American Spitz rather than Eskimo Spitz.
After World War I, the small Spitz dogs came to the attention of the American public when the dogs became popular entertainers in the American circus. Due
to the popularity of the circus dogs, many of today's American Eskimo Dogs can trace their lineage back to these circus dogs.
After World War II,
the dogs continued to be popular pets. Postwar contact with Japan led to importation into the United States of the Japanese Spitz, which may have been
crossed into the breed at this time. The breed was first officially recognized as the "American Eskimo" as early as 1919 by the American United Kennel Club
(UKC), and the first written record and history of the breed was printed in 1958 by the UKC. At that time there was no official breed club and no breed standard,
and dogs were accepted for registration as single dogs, based on appearance. In 1970 the National American Eskimo Dog Association (NAEDA) was founded, and single
dog registrations ceased. In 1985 the American Eskimo Dog Club of America (AEDCA) was formed by fanciers who wished to register the breed with the American Kennel
Club (AKC). Following the AKC's requirements for breed recognition, the AEDCA collected the pedigree information from 1,750 dogs that now form the basis of
the AKC recognized breed, which is called the American Eskimo Dog. The breed was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1995. The stud book was opened
from 2000 to 2003 in an attempt to register more of the original UKC registered lines, and today many American Eskimo Dogs are dual-registered with both American
kennel clubs. The breed is also recognized by the Canadian Kennel Club as of 2006, but is not recognized elsewhere in the world The American Eskimo Dog is not
entirely an internationally recognized breed, and since neither of the American kennel clubs are affiliated with the Federation Cynologique Internationale, fanciers
wishing to participate in certain international dog shows will register their American Eskimo Dogs as the very similar Eskimo Spitz. This is done only by
individuals wishing to participate in dog sports in international shows, and does not mean that the American Eskimo Dog and the Eskimo Spitz are the same. Although the
American Eskimo is known as the Eskimo Spitz in several countries outside of the United States, the two breeds have actually developed somewhat differently since
the American Eskimo was relocated to North America, over a century ago. It is not uncommon for Eskimo Spitz breeders to incorporate imported American Eskimo bloodlines
into their breeding program to broaden the gene pool, and vice versa.
Behavior The American Eskimo Dog is intelligent, alert and friendly, although
slightly conservative. It is never overly shy nor aggressive. At
home it is an excellent watchdog, sounding a warning bark to
announce the arrival of any stranger. It is protective of its home
and family, although it does not threaten to bite or attack people.
The American Eskimo is a charming, affectionate and loving dog.
Hardy and playful, they are excellent with children. Highly
intelligent and willing to please.
Health Health testing should be performed by all responsible breeders and anyone purchasing a puppy should be aware of the genetic problems which have
been found in some individuals of the breed, such as PRA (Progressive Retinal Atrophy), luxating patella, and hip dysplasia). None of these problems are common and
the breed is generally very healthy. In addition to the rarer problems mentioned, the breed can have a tendency towards allergies and most commonly, tear-staining. This
breed also is known in some cases to have dental issues.
Advice The thick snowy white coat is easy to groom. Brush with a firm
bristle brush twice a week. It should be brushed daily when it is
shedding. This breed is an average shedder. American Eskimos will do
okay in an apartment if it is sufficiently exercised. It is very
active indoors and a small yard will be sufficient.