Issue Description A perianal gland tumor is a type of tumor
found near the anus in dogs that arises from specialized glandular
tissue found in the perineum. Other Names Canine Perianal Gland Tumor, Hepatoid Tumor
Causes It is most commonly seen in intact (not
neutered) dogs and is the third most common tumor type in intact male
dogs. There are two types of perianal gland tumors, perianal gland
adenomas, which are benign, and perianal gland adenocarcinomas, which
are malignant. Both have receptors for testosterone. Perianal gland
adenomas are three times more likely to be found in intact male dogs
than females, and perianal gland adenocarcinomas are ten times more
common in male dogs than females.
Breeds Commonly Affected The most commonly affected breeds for adenomas
are the Siberian Husky, Cocker Spaniel, Pekingese, and Samoyed; for
adenocarcinomas the most commonly affected breeds are the Siberian
Husky, Bulldog, and Alaskan Malamute.
Common Symptoms Of Cancer
Hesitation to exercise or loss of energy.
Loss of appetite, weight loss.
Persistent lameness or stiffness of movement.
Lumps in the breast area.
Abnormality or difference in size of testicles.
Abnormal swellings that continue to grow, especially in the nymph
Sores do not heal.
Bleeding or discharge from the mouth, nose, urinary tract, rectum,
Difficulty eating or swallowing.
Difficulty in urinating or defecating.
Diagnosis Perianal gland tumors are located most commonly
in the skin around the anus, but can also be found on the tail or
groin. Adenomas are more common, making up 91 percent of perianal
gland tumors in one study. Adenomas and adenocarcinomas look alike,
both being round, pink and usually less than three centimeters in
width. Adenocarcinomas are more likely to be multiple and invasive
into the underlying tissue, and they can metastasize to the lymph
nodes, liver, and lungs. Both types should be removed and sent to a
pathologist for identification.
Treatment About 95 percent of perianal gland adenomas
will disappear after neutering the dog. Removing the tumor and
neutering the dog at the same time will help prevent recurrence. Dogs
with perianal gland adenocarcinomas should be treated with aggressive
surgery and the radiation therapy and chemotherapy if necessary.