Issue Description Diabetes insipidus is a condition
characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of
severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no
effect on the latter. There are several different types of DI, each
with a different cause. The most common type is central diabetes
insipidus, caused by a deficiency of vasopressin, also known as
antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The second common type of DI is
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by an insensitivity of
the kidneys to ADH. It can also be induced iatrogenically by various
drugs. Other Names CDI, DI, Nephrogenic Diabetes
Insipidus, NDI, Central Diabetes Insipidus
Types Of Diabetes Insipidus
Central Diabetes Insipidus - caused when
the pituitary gland does not secrete enough antidiuretic hormone
(ADH). This type of DI may be the caused by a congenital defect,
trauma, a tumor on the pituitary gland, or unknown causes.
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus - caused when the kidneys do not
respond to the ADH that is produced by the pituitary gland. This type
of DI may be caused by a congenital defect, drugs, or caused by other
Often increased urination even if he or she isn't drinking a lot
Urine will be very dilute and clear
Diagnosis Diagnosis of canine diabetes insipidus is done
by excluding other diseases that can cause similar symptoms. These
diseases include renal failure, liver disease, Cushing's disease, and
canine diabetes mellitus. Also, the veterinarian will likely perform a
sonogram to take a close look at the pituitary gland.
Treatment Central DI is treated with desmopressin, a drug
that mimics the actions of ADH. It is available under the trade name
DDAVP and as a generic. DDAVP is available in several formulations: as
a nasal spray pump; as a liquid for use with rhinal tube; as an
injectable liquid; and in tablets. Most pet owners use the nasal spray
or rhinal liquid formulations and use them as eye drops, nose drops,
or inject it subcutaneously.
Nephrogenic DI is commonly treated with thiazide diuretics. These
drugs help to concentrate the urine. An oral drug called
chlorothiazide acts on the kidneys to help concentrate the urine.
Other treatments may include chloropropamide, which increases the
effects of ADH on the kidney. But chloropropamide is not always
successful. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used in dogs.
No therapy may be chosen, and the pets can survive as long as plenty
of water is always available.